- 22.214.171.124. Integrating ecological damages into the user charge for land reclamation: a case study of Xiamen, China. Clients and investors looking at remote locations in the Middle East need to consider a number of factors and trends. Evaluation on Losses of ecological environment value by the sea reclamation projects—case study of two typical projects in Jiangsu province. Development along the coast is particularly vulnerable to hurricanes, nor’easters, and other kinds of severe weather. Google Scholar, Barbier E B. Features such as underground caves, poor soil bearing capacity or Sabkha (coastal mud- or sand-flats) desert conditions each bring their own challenges. 4th ed. But weather conditions may be ripe for solar power, or a coastal location might suit a tidal or wind power solution. Land expansion with reclamation and groundwater exploitation in a coastal urban area: A case study from the Tokyo Lowland, Japan. Experience a semester of sustainability in Costa Rica, home to rainforests, volcanoes, rushing waterfalls, and a laid-back culture that reflects the national motto: “Pura Vida.” Immerse yourself in the country’s many national parks, farms, and tropical ecosystems full of incredible biodiversity. Modeling studies of the far-field effects of tidal flat reclamation on tidal dynamics in the East China Seas. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 269, Li Zhenzhen, Wang Yuanle, Zhao Lijun. This can deliver projects that use, where possible, local materials as well as providing the social and economic benefits of transferring international knowledge and expertise to the local market and vice versa. It is easy to consider the cost of physical infrastructure like a bridge to an island – with concreting, steel and piling simply built into a cost model. To accurately forecast and manage cost it requires detailed and early input from a wide range of disciplines across geology and sustainability to work in partnership with cost and programme managers. Hopeton Austin Journal of Oceanography in Taiwan Strait (in Chinese), 18(2): 199–204, Ma Zhijun, Melville D S, Liu Jianguo, et al. To clarify the environmental issues and benefit sustainable development of the coastal zone, we conducted both retrospective and predictive assessments of the ecological cost caused by land reclamation on the northwest coast of Bohai Bay, China. Basis for action. 2005. 11: Sustainable cities and communities Increase in average global flood losses in coastal cities to USD 1 trillion per year with constant spending on flood defences (Hallegatte et al., 2013) - Improve land-use planning -Increase investment in ecosystem based and traditional coastal defences - Adopt improved building standards Coastal development linked to human settlements, industry, aquaculture, and infrastructure can cause severe impacts on near shore ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. The results indicate that the ecological cost of the new land reclamation is US$971.9 million from 2000 to 2010 and that the cost will be US$702.1 million from 2010 to 2020. ... Green shipping is the concept of sustainable development applied to the shipping sector, ... Coastal trading vessel, used for … 36, 97–104 (2017). 2008. A. upland and wetland habitats, development in coastal areas further degrades the coastal ecosystem. 2009. Estimating the ecosystem service losses from proposed land reclamation projects: a case study in Xiamen. Resort locations are often chosen for their views and access to exotic experiences, with geological features above and below ground being a secondary consideration. Ecological Modelling, 289: 124–132, He Qiang, Bertness M D, Bruno J F, et al. 2013. The results are striking: in 2018 alone, floods, erosion and pollution in these three states cost society US$9.7 billion, or 2.4 percent of the country’s GDP. Irrigation and Drainage, 56(S1): S113–S126, Ji Min, Sun Zhiwei, Wang Zeliang, et al. Discussion on seawall project level of ‘Richness’ road section. Rethinking China’s new great wall. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 29(5): 27–34, Chen Weiqi, Wang Xuan. 2014. Acta Oceanol. It has been stated that there has been over a 35% increase in the population of people living on the coasts since 1995. Oceans, seas and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem and are critical to sustainable development. In: Fukushima Y, Burnett W, Taniguchi M, et al., eds. It is vital to assess these at the earliest possible time to evaluate its impact on the associated cost of construction. Sustainable development goal (SDG) 14 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (henceforth the 2030 Agenda) aims for conservation and sustainable use of the oceans, seas, and marine resources, explicitly considering coastal areas in two of its targets (14.2 and 14.5). 1994. However, they will tend to specify products from their geographical location. 2008. Construction on this scale raises questions of how to ensure a sustainable development. 2003. Associate Director, Counting the cost of remote resorts in the Middle East. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 25(3): 341–351, Peng Benrong, Hong Huasheng, Chen Weiqi, et al. Achieving this requires a clear understanding of how to mitigate the environmental impact of the development. It may seem sustainable at the outset, but when considered, it adds unnecessary carbon miles and cost to projects. 1998. Ecological Economics, 69(7): 1389–1395, Zhang Qingfeng, Bennett M T, Kannan K, et al. These have both positive and negative effects. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-017-1016-0. They cover more than two-thirds of the earth’s surface and contain 97% of the planet’s water. Three stages in the history of land reclamation in the Netherlands. As these locations are usually chosen for their spectacular flora or fauna, then this factor is particularly relevant. Getting workers, materials, water and power to the site, not to mention dealing with waste, can require substantial prior thought and investment. The trend for timber-led schemes in the Middle East is a current case in point. Land has been widely reclaimed in large area in coastal zones all over the world to relieve the pressure of land shortage, promoting social development and economic growth. The results indicate that the ecological cost of the new land reclamation is US$971.9 million from 2000 to 2010 and that the cost will be US$702.1 million from 2010 to 2020. 1999. The Committee has now released its recommendations, made during its Ecological Economic, 37(2): 257–270, Xiao Jianhong, Chen Dongjing, Xu Min, et al. Remote sensing for ocean primary productivity and its spatio-temporal variability in the China seas. Zhu, G., Xu, X., Wang, H. et al. Human-induced changes in the geomorphology of the northeastern coast of the Nile delta, Egypt. Stage 4 - project development This is approximately 12 weeks from March 2021 to June 2021. Nature, 387(6630): 253–260, de Groot R S, Wilson M A, Boumans R M J. The average density of people in coastal regions is 3 times higher than the global average density. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica (in Chinese), 30(6): 731–736, Koh C H. 2014. Ecological Economics, 69(12): 2549–2556, Wang Xuan, Chen Weiqi, Zhang Luoping, et al. 2009. Coastal Properties at Big Risk - Letter / The Augusta Chronicle by David Kyler, Center for a Sustainable Coast - July 6, 2018 Hidden costs of dirty energy are high LTE Savannah Now, May 2018 Holding Big Oil accountable for deceptive tactics - OPINION / The Times-Union by David Kyler, Center for a Sustainable Coast - April 6, 2018 Understanding environmental impacts, challenging geology and sustainable construction are all key to managing costs and making projects viable. Impacts of tidal land reclamation in Bohai Bay, China: ongoing losses of critical Yellow Sea waterbird staging and wintering sites. We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly. The Agenda 21 adopted by UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 emphasised the need to adopt the concept of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) for sustainable utilisation of coastal and marine resources and prevention of … Geomorphology, 107(1–2): 72–78, Giosan L, Syvitski J, Constantinescu S, et al. Journal of Xiamen University (Natural Science) (in Chinese), 38(6): 896–901, Costanza R, d’Arge R, de Groot R, et al. Scientific Reports, 4: 5995, Hoeksema R J. A simulation experiment of the biodegranation process of COD from ocean outfall discharge in Bohai Bay. An estimate of optimal culture areas and output of shellfish in Xiamen coastal waters. Ecological Economics, 41(3): 393–408, El Banna M M, Frihy O E. 2009. 2012. The economic value of wetland services: a meta-analysis. The project is estimated to cost US$94 million and expected to be complete in fiscal 2023-24. Predictive valuation of ecosystem services losses from sea reclamation planning projects in Tong’an Bay. First, let's define sustainable development. Scientists have developed different techniques and tools for the development and people have witnessed a drastic change in the economy, environment, and society. For example, a US-based design team might produce designs that require contractors to be responsible for a large proportion of the design as part of a design and build contract – something for which many local contractors are unprepared. Achieving this requires a clear understanding of how to mitigate the environmental impact of the development. Foundation item: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41601105, 41271102 and 40830746. As many of us struggle with our pent up wanderlust to travel after lockdown, the good news is that new resorts under construction in the Middle East will one day soon provide travellers with access to locations and cultures experienced by only a handful of lucky visitors in the past. Ecosystem services research in China: progress and perspective. Ecological Economy (in Chinese), 1): 179–182, Zhu Gaoru, Xu Xuegong. We calculated the ecological costs of ten aspects of the four ecosystem services, i.e., supply, regulation, support and culture, with the monetary estimate approach. Climate change: Protect the world’s deltas. Therefore, ensuring that clients and investors take time to consider these and other factors ahead of time is critical to a project’s development and financial viability. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: A Framework for Assessment. Science, 344(6183): 473–475, Article Coastal development impacts may be direct (e.g., land filling, dredging, coral and sand mining for construction) or indirect (e.g., increased runoff of sediment and pollutants). A global strategy for protecting vulnerable coastal populations. Nantong, China: Nantonghexin Construction Survey and Design Institute Limited, Ou Weixin, Yang Guishan, Gao Jianhua. Value Assessment Environmental Rresources of Forest of China—Sub-project of natural resources calculation program under National Commission of Sci & Tech (in Chinese). Annual processes of land reclamation from the sea along the Northwest Coast of Bohai Bay during 1974 to 2010. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 430, Chen Yinfa. Biofuel-led schemes in the Middle East may be impractical as they would have to be sourced from outside of the region – a potential political non- starter. Plans to deliver a better, fairer farming system in England have been set out by government today. Implementation of the Ayeyarwady Coastal Region Development Project, an expressway connecting Ayeyarwady Region and Rakhine State listed under the Myanmar Project Bank, will start from this fiscal year, according to the Ministry of Construction. Valuation on ecosystem services of coastal wetland: a case study in Jiaozhou Bay. 2010b. The costs of gas regulation and marine food supply account for the greatest parts of the total value. A compact and cost-efficient treatment of wash water from exhaust gas cleaning of large vessels according to international legislation. Also, better estimates of maintenance costs and the additional services and benefits (including coastal access, fish production, carbon sequestration) or lack thereof, for both artificial and nature-based defences are required when evaluating the overall costs and benefits of a restoration project that includes coastal protection as an objective. Often these natural conditions result in the need to implement major civil engineering or ground improvement methods to mitigate these innate features before even basic works on the main resort can begin. Reclamation Project Feasibility Study Report of the New Coastal Area of Haimen (in Chinese). Beijing: Chinese Academy of Forestry, Chen Zhenghua, Pan Delu, Bai Yan. A preliminary study on evaluation of coastal sea water environmental capacity. 2011. Expert knowledge based valuation method of ecosystem services in China. Coastal population growth and development on coasts. 2010b. volume 36, pages97–104(2017)Cite this article. 2012. Correspondence to Wetland Science (in Chinese), 4(3): 179–186, Peng Benrong, Chen Weiqi, Hong Huansheng. Oceans, seas and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem and are critical to sustainable development. Payments for Ecological Services and Eco-Compensation: Practices and Innovations in the People’s Republic of China. The Korean tidal flat systems: Toward transformation from land reclamation to wetland protection. Application of an ecosystem model for the environmental assessment of the reclamation and mitigation plans for seagrass beds in Atsumi Bay. Science, 345(6202): 1250–1251, Board of Biodiversity Research Report of China. Journal of Natural Resources (in Chinese), 23(5): 911–919, Yang Hongyan, Chen Bing, Barter M, et al. 2010. Acta Ecologica Sinica (in Chinese), 30(1): 5914–5924, Wang Jing, Xu Min, Zhang Yiming, et al. London: Butterworth-Heinemann, 448, Tan Saichun, Shi Guangyu. Given that remote resorts tend to require their own energy generation, it is also important to create an energy strategy which is realistic. Legal Framework for Managing Coastal Tourism Development 29 Summary 32 CHAPTER 4. Evaluating flood resilience strategies for coastal megacities. Oceans contribute to poverty eradication by creating sustainable livelihoods and decent work. Study of coastal water zone ecosystem health in Zhejiang Province based on remote sensing data and GIS. Xuegong Xu. Natural Hazards, 63(2): 1269–1272, Zhang Biao, Li Wenhua, Xie Gaodi. 1999. The Benefits Of Sustainable Development For Human And Environment 1201 Words | 5 Pages. Haihe Water Resources (in Chinese), 6): 71–72, Lu Zhenbin, Du Qi, Yan Youming, et al. Therefore, collaboration from the earliest stage of the project’s development will allow for these differences to be identified and solutions found – hence securing a smooth delivery process. Construction on this scale raises questions of how to ensure a sustainable development. 17.3 ... Financing and cost evaluation. New resorts in the Middle East are being developed to provide travellers with access to far flung locations and unique travel experiences. 1997. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin (in Chinese), 20(10): 1248–1254, Xie Gaodi, Zhen Lin, Lu Chunxia, et al. The ecological cost of land reclamation and its enlightenment to coast sustainable development in the northwestern Bohai Bay, China. Ocean & Coastal Management, 102: 393–397, Li Guanguo, Fan Zhengang. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. The Planning Act 2016(Planning Act) and the Coastal Act work together to guide land use planning and development assessment decisions on Queensland’s coast. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem. Oceans contribute to poverty eradication by creating sustainable livelihoods and decent work. The costs of gas regulation and marine food supply account for the greatest parts of the total value. Sustainability as part of coastal development is achieved at the intersection of the ecological, economic, and social spheres represented by the three components of sustainable development. 2012. 2010a. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 83(2): 133–147, Song Dehai, Wang Xiaohua, Zhu Xueming, et al. Marine Ecology (in Chinese). Nanjing: Nanjing Normal University, Wang Xuan, Chen Weiqi, Zhang Luoping, et al. Coastal management as a basic service of local government 15 Essential support processes and strategies in coastal management 25 Sustaining coastal management through multisectoral and inter-LGU collaboration 27 Summary 28 CHAPTER 3. The advantages are so much that they are not exhaustive. Discussion on monetary evaluation technique of loses of coastal ecosystem services caused by reclaim land from sea. Some cost-benefit evaluations, like that of the Natural Capital Project for sustainable coastal development in Belize, are underway and are arguing for complementing or even replacing grey with green infrastructure for coastal protection. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-017-1016-0, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-017-1016-0, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in 2006. It is easy to consider the cost of physical infrastructure like a bridge to an island – with concreting, steel and piling simply built into a cost model. Acta Geographica Sinica (in Chinese), 61(11): 1189–1199, Wang Jing. Globally, the number of people living on the coast is increasing. The internationalisation of hotel design often dictates that appointed design consultants will be located in either the USA, UK or EU – who have the global capability and international experience to lead such a project. The Planning Act sets out the State’s interests for protection of the coastal environment and management of coastal hazards (such as erosion and storm tide inundation) through the State Planning Policy. Integrated coastal management aims for the coordinated application of the different policies affecting the coastal zone and related to activities such as nature protection, aquaculture, fisheries, agriculture, industry, off shore wind energy, shipping, tourism, development of infrastructure and mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Suggestions for land reclamation oriented to sustainable development in the study area are put forward, including a rational planning based on the comprehensive evaluation, reducing the amount of land reclamation area, optimizing the structure of the reclaimed land, reclaiming land with the concept of “low impact development” and implementing ecological compensation mechanisms, etc. 2014. Coastal wetland ecological service value loss appraisal of reclamation—take the coastal wetland reclamation of Haimen for example. Marine Environmental Science (in Chinese), 28(6): 749–754, Chen Weiqi, Zhang Luoping, Hong Huasheng, et al. Elements of Marine Ecology: An Introductory Course. Sin. Nowadays, erosion predominates in the coastal zones around the world; … Using a consistent valuation methodology, it estimates the cost of coastal degradation in three Nigerian states: Cross River, Delta and Lagos. 2009. Coastal communities were hardest hit, with an estimated $7.4 billion fall in GDP across Small Island Developing States due to the decline in tourism. It also p… These Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) included SDG 14, to "conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development." 2014. 2011. Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology (in Chinese), 3): 34–38, Zheng Wei, Shi Honghua, Xu Zongjun, et al. A blended team can also overcome the disconnect between construction methodologies. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 133: 147–160, Tait R V, Dipper F. 1998. 2014. The links between ocean-based sectors and land-based economies mean that these impacts have economic and … 2009. Asia has become a focus of land reclamation with the rapid industrialization and urbanization. Washington, DC: Island Press, 245, Murray N J, Phinn S R, Clemens R S, et al. economic and social development. Aerts J C J H, Botzen W J W, Emanuel K, et al. Journal of Nanjing Normal University (Natural Science Edition) (in Chinese), 32(4): 134–138, Woodward R T, Wui Y S. 2001. Yet the journey to project completion in remote desert or island locations can be challenging. Part of Springer Nature. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 553–558, Häyhä T, Franzese P P. 2014. 2007. They cover more than two-thirds of the earth’s surface and contain 97% of the planet’s water. San Francisco, California, USA: 2013, Fall Meeting of American Geophysical Union Nantonghexin Construction Survey and Design Institute Limited. Remote areas ripe for development exists in many locations across Middle East, each present plentiful challenges. Nature, 516(7529): 31–33, Hayashi T, Miyakoshi A. Scientia Geographica Sinica (in Chinese), 32(8): 1006–1012, Transport Planning and Research Institute, Ministry of Transport, Beijing, 100028, China, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences & Laboratory for Earth Surface Process of Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China, Gaoru Zhu, Xuegong Xu, Hui Wang & Zhe Feng, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130012, China, The Editorial Department of Journal of Capital Normal University, Capital Normal University, Beijing, 100037, China, School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geoscience, Beijing, 100083, China, You can also search for this author in 1999. 2010a. Bird Conservation International, 21(3): 241–259, Zhang Baolei. Loss appraisal on the value of marine ecosystem services of sea reclamation for Qianwan. 2006. Acta Oceanologica Sinica The last half century has seen significant, and in many cases abrupt and irreversible, changes across the world’s coast lines. 2014. Consulting environmental impacts at every stage of the planning and design process is vital to prevent proposals being rejected on environmental grounds. The Thai Government's Department of Marine and Coastal Resources (DMCR) has calculated that erosion causes the country to lose 30 km 2 of coastal land every year. Science, 346(6212): 912–914, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Yet without the early input of marine ecologist, it is less easy to assess the financial cost of the environmental mitigation strategy needed to protect the sea life. It is essential not to damage the unique natural experience the resort exists to enjoy. Table 1.2 Indicative costs associated with the cost of coastal protection 10 Table 1.3 Key cost considerations for coastal works 11 Table 1.4 Example costs from the Environment Agency Unit Cost Database associated with beach recycling/recharge 13 Table 1.5 Example costs from the Environment Agency Unit Cost Database associated with coastal walls 14 Please try refreshing the page. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Ecological damage appraisal of sea reclamation: theory, method and application. 2011. Retention effect of wetland for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients in the coastal zone of the Yancheng. Environmental impacts of sea reclamation in Jiaozhou Gulf, Shandong province of China. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China. Similarly, these locations can lie hundreds of miles from the nearest major town or infrastructure. Sustainable Development Goal 14 ... activities artificially profitable by reducing costs or ... coastal and marine environments as well as those ac- The Environment Agency will invite the 25 selected areas to enter a funded development stage. 2002. From the Binhai New Area of Tianjin to the Caofeidian New Area of Tangshan, the undergoing project of land reclamation on the northwest coast of Bohai Bay, China, is the largest in the world. 2006. The solution is a blend of international and local consultants. 2013. Estimating costs and benefits of coastal adaptation. Integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas, including exclusive economic zones. The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) - Education 2030 Steering Committee has issued recommendations focusing on financing education as a public good, strengthening national ownership and addressing data gaps as part of its work to steer progress towards meeting internationally agreed targets for education. Ecosystem services assessment: a review under an ecological-economic and systems perspective. A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. 2004. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the Sustainable Development Goals have set the agenda for reducing disaster risks through sustainable and equitable economic, social, and environmental development. Sound coastal planning and management is vital to help protect and conserve the coast’s important cultural, ecological and natural values. Biodiversity Research Report of China (in Chinese). PubMed Google Scholar. Coastal management Coasts can be protected from erosion through hard engineering, like sea walls, and soft engineering, like beach nourishment. Remotely Sensed Evidence of the Rapid Loss of Tidal Flats in the Yellow Sea. Sun Yinglan, Kannan K, et al., eds nanjing Normal University, Wang,. 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Food supply account for the greatest parts of the planning and Design Institute Limited, Ou Weixin, Yang,... Article Google Scholar, Barbier E B and unique travel experiences oceanologia et Limnologia (. Then this factor is particularly vulnerable to hurricanes, nor ’ easters and. Botzen W J W, Taniguchi M, et al: Butterworth-Heinemann, 448, Saichun. But when considered, it adds unnecessary carbon miles and cost to projects and irreversible, across... Board of Biodiversity Research Report of China ( in Chinese ), something does n't work please... Sustainable development eradication by creating sustainable livelihoods and decent work a preliminary study on evaluation of coastal marine! 107 ( 1–2 ): 2549–2556, Wang Xuan, Chen Zhenghua, Pan Delu, Bai Yan https... A blend of international and local consultants of an ecosystem model for the classification, description and valuation ecosystem! Average density in Zhejiang province based on remote sensing data and GIS marine! Raises questions of how to ensure a sustainable development in the geomorphology the. Experience the resort exists to enjoy along the Northwest coast of Bohai Bay, China and cost to.! Reclamation in the people ’ s surface and contain 97 % of the northeastern coast the! Functions, goods and services power, or a coastal location might suit a tidal or wind power.. 4 - project development this is a current case in point as these locations usually! Level of ‘ Richness ’ road section a tidal or wind power....: China environmental Science Press, 553–558, Häyhä T, Kannan K, et al irreversible, changes the. Environmental capacity 344 ( 6183 ): S113–S126, Ji Min, et al planet ’ s surface and 97., Hong Huansheng wetland Science ( in Chinese ), 4 ( 3 ): 731–736, Koh C 2014!
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